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Artur Paendrag Tanreall (pronounced: AHR-tuhr PAY-ehn-DRAG tahn-REE-ahl) (FY 912 - 994), better known in legend as Artur Hawkwing, is a historical figure who united all the lands west of the Spine of the World as a single Empire. He took the title "High King". His death sparked the War of the Hundred Years. His sign was a golden hawk in flight.


He was tall with a hooked nose and dark deep set eyes.


Birth and Early Life

Artur Paendrag Tanreall was born in Shandalle, a kingdom between the Erinin and Alguenya rivers, in FY 912. He was the royal prince, the son of King Myrdin Paendrag Maregore and Queen Mailinde Paendrag Lyndhal. As a young man he was tutored in the arts of combat, becoming a soldier and captain of some renown in Shandalle's army. Shandalle, as a small kingdom menaced by stronger, larger neighbors (Caembarin to the west and Tova to the east, most notably), required a professional, well-trained army to compensate for the larger armies its rivals could bring against it. However, Shandalle's survival may have also been related to its proximity to Tar Valon, which lay a short distance to the north, allowing easy access to Aes Sedai mediation.

Other details of Artur's childhood, family and early life have been lost in the destruction of almost all records related to him during the War of the Hundred Years. We know he married Amaline Tagora in FY 937, but details of her homeland and other information have been lost.

Hawkwing's parents both died in the Black Fever epidemic of FY 939, and he ascended the throne of Shandalle in that year.[1]

War of the Second Dragon

When Guaire Amalasan falsely declared himself the Dragon Reborn in FY 939 and begun a slow advance on the city of Tear, the Aes Sedai organized several armies to be sent against him. All were defeated, apart from those led by Tanreall, who always managed to escape or stalemate Amalasan. By FY 942 he was called Hawkwing, the name reflecting the swiftness with which he and his army could move. In the spring of FY 943 he captured Amalasan using tactical brilliance at the Battle of Jolvaine Pass.

He went to Tar Valon with his army, taking Amalasan to justice. However, in doing so he violated the law that no army outside of White Tower control can be brought onto Tar Valon's territory without permission (history is divided on whether the Aes Sedai accompanying his army gave him this permission or not, but it is known they were disciplined and given penances after returning to the Tower). Bonwhin Meraighdin, the Amyrlin Seat, gave Hawkwing five days to rest his army and leave, but the city was attacked by forces loyal to Amalasan and Tar Valon was forced to request Hawkwing's aid. Although Hawkwing defeated the attacking army and put it to rout, Bonwhin does not appear to have been grateful, but rather angered. Historical records indicate they parted on bad terms. Soon Caembarin, Tova and Khodomar had launched attacks on Shandalle, claiming that Hawkwing was a power-hungry conqueror who was subverting attempts to restore order in Amalasan's former territories. Historical records indicate that Hawkwing believed Bonwhin to be behind these attacks. He kept winning the battles, and continued to conquer territories in what became known as the Consolidation from FY 943 to 963.[2]

High King

After the Consolidation, Artur held the world peacefully for twenty-three years. Seven rebellions were all suppressed, one by the people themselves. A Trolloc invasion in FY 986 to 987 was also soundly defeated.

Jalwin Moerad came to his court in FY 973, and convinced Artur to sack every Aes Sedai in his employ, many of whom had positions of power, including his adviser, in FY 974. He also put a price on the head of every Aes Sedai who wouldn't denounce the White Tower. He laid siege to the White Tower until near his death.

He sent 300,000 soldiers and settlers across the Aryth Ocean in FY 992 led by his son Luthair. In FY 993 he sent another fleet of the same size under one of his daughters to Shara. This second fleet was entirely destroyed, and all contact with Luthair's fleet was lost.


Artur died in FY 994 from a sudden illness at the age of 82. His death, with no known heirs, triggered the War of the Hundred Years. The people and government of Mayene claimed that his grandson Tyrn sur Paendrag Mashera had survived to become the inaugural First of Mayene, but this claim was not accepted outside of Mayene.


He was loved by the commoners, appointing people according to ability, not bloodline. The commoners got a subscription going and built a giant statue of him in his proposed city, near present-day Caemlyn. The city never got past the drawing board.

Artur married Amaline in FY 937 and had four children. Modair was killed in battle in FY 959. Amaline and the other three children, including Modair's twin sister Amira, were all poisoned in FY 961. He believed the White Tower was behind the poisonings, dismissing his adviser Chowin Tsao. He also became harsh and brutal. Tamika helped Artur get over their deaths and rescind some of his harsher edicts. She married him in FY 965 and had four or five children including Luthair and Laiwynde.

Ba'alzamon claims responsibility for some of Hawkwing's harsher moves when he first summons Rand to the Dream World. It was later discovered that he had been telling the truth, as he and Jalwin Moerad had been one and the same.

Artur Hawkwing had a legendary Power-forged sword named Justice.


Artur was the most strongly ta'veren of whom any writings remain until Rand al'Thor was born. [3]

Horn Summoning

Artur was summoned by Matrim Cauthon after Mat blew the Horn of Valere.[4] He was summoned from the grave along with the other Heroes of the Horn to repel the invading Seanchan out of Falme.

The same happened during the Last Battle when Olver sounded the Horn and the Heroes came to fight the Shadow.


The name Artur Paendrag is an allusion to Arthur Pendragon, the legendary king of Celtic Britain whom countless myths surround.

Hawkwing's supremely successful conquests are reminiscent of the achievements of Alexander the Great and Alexander, like Hawkwing, is considered one of the most successful battle commanders and generals in history. The break up of Hawkwing's empire after his death also bears some resemblance to the fate of the Macedonian Empire after Alexander's death, in that none of his generals were able to hold the Empire together (though Alexander's successors did a far better job at it) and civil wars eventually tore it apart. The death of Amaline and Hawkwing's resulting depression and tyranny also echo that of Alexander's reaction to the death of his companion Hephaestion.

Hawkwing also shares parallels with the Frankish emperor Charlemagne: both were immensely successful and expansionary rulers noted for their religious fervour. Each attempted to found a new city near the geographical centre of their empire (though Charlemagne partially succeeded, even if Aachen was soon superseded by other capitals after his death), and each had his empire disintegrate after his death. They also both possessed a famous sword with its own name (Justice for Hawkwing, Joyeuse for Charlemagne).

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