Marath'damane is a Seanchan term for any woman who is able to channel the One Power but has not yet been leashed by an a'dam. Literally, it means "those who must be leashed" in the Old Tongue. All women who can channel and who are not leashed are considered marath'damane by the Seanchan, including Aes Sedai, Wise Ones, Wavemistresses, and the Kin.
Once a marath'damane is leashed by an a'dam, she is called a damane.
On the Seanchan continent, there are no marath'damane, as all girls are tested young and leashed before they begin to channel.